General Appearance

The Alaskan Malamute, one of the oldest Arctic sled dogs, is a powerful and substantially built dog with a deep chest and strong, well-muscled body. The Malamute stands well over the pads, and this stance gives the appearance of much activity and a proud carriage, with head erect and eyes alert showing interest and curiosity. The head is broad. Ears are triangular and erect when alerted. The muzzle is bulky, only slight diminishing in width from root to nose. The muzzle is not pointed or long, yet not stubby. The coat is thick with a coarse guard coat of sufficient length to protect a woolly undercoat. Malamutes are of various colors. Face markings are a distinguishing feature. These consist of a cap over the head, the face either all white or marked with a bar and/or mask. The tail is well furred, carried over the back, and has the appearance of a waving plume. The Malamute must be a heavy boned dog with sound legs, good feet, deep chest and powerful shoulders, and have all of the other physical attributes necessary for the efficient performance of his job. The gait must be steady, balanced, tireless and totally efficient. He is not intended as a racing sled dog designed to compete in speed trials. The Malamute is structured for strength and endurance, and any characteristic of the individual specimen, including temperament, which interferes with the accomplishment of this purpose, is to be considered the most serious of faults.

Size, Proportion, Substance

There is a natural range in size in the breed. The desirable freighting sizes are males, 25 inches at the shoulders, 85 pounds; females, 23 inches at the shoulders, 75 pounds. However, size consideration should not outweigh that of type, proportion, movement and other functional attributes. When dogs are judged equal in type, proportion, movement, the dog nearest the desirable freighting size is to be preferred. The depth of chest is approximately one half the height of the dog at the shoulders, the deepest point being just behind the forelegs. The length of the body from point of shoulder to the rear point of pelvis is longer than the height of the body from ground to top of the withers. The body carries no excess weight, and bone is in proportion to size.


The head is broad and deep, not coarse or clumsy, but in proportion to the size of the dog. The expression is soft and indicates an affectionate disposition. The eyes are obliquely placed in the skull. Eyes are brown, almond shaped and of medium size. Dark eyes are preferred. Blue Eyes are a Disqualifying Fault. The ears are of medium size, but small in proportion to the head. The ears are triangular in shape and slightly rounded at the tips. They are set wide apart on the outside back edges of the skull on line with the upper corner of the eye, giving ears the appearance, when erect, of standing off from the skull. Erect ears point slightly forward, but when the dog is at work, the ears are sometimes folded against the skull. High set ears are a fault. The skull is broad and moderately rounded between the ears, gradually narrowing and flattening on top as it approaches the eyes, rounding off to cheeks that are moderately flat. There is a slight furrow between the eyes. The topline of the skull and the topline of the muzzle show a slight break downward from a straight line as they join. The muzzle is large and bulky in proportion to the size of the skull, diminishing slightly in width and depth from junction with the skull to the nose. In all coat colors, except reds, the nose, lips, and eye rims’ pigmentation is black. Brown is permitted in red dogs. The lighter streaked “snow nose” is acceptable. The lips are close fitting. The upper and lower jaws are broad with large teeth. The incisors meet with a scissors grip. Overshot or undershot is a fault.

Neck, Topline, Body

The neck is strong and moderately arched. The chest is well developed. The body is compactly built but not short coupled. The back is straight and gently sloping to the hips. The loins are hard and well muscled. A long loin that may weaken the back is a fault. The tail is moderately set and follows the line of the spine at the base. The tail is carried over the back when not working. It is not a snap tail or curled tight against the back, nor is it short furred like a fox brush. The Malamute tail is well furred and has the appearance of a waving plume


The shoulders are moderately sloping; forelegs heavily boned and muscled, straight to the pasterns when viewed from the front. Pasterns are short and strong and slightly sloping when viewed from the side. The feet are of the snowshoe type, tight and deep, with well-cushioned pads, giving a firm, compact appearance. The feet are large, toes tight fitting and well arched. There is a protective growth of hair between the toes. The pads are thick and tough; toenails short and strong.


The rear legs are broad and heavily muscled through the thighs; stifles moderately bent; hock joints are moderately bent and well let down. When viewed from the rear, the legs stand and move true in line with the movement of the front legs, not too close or too wide. Dewclaws on the rear legs are undesirable and should be removed shortly after puppies are whelped.


The Malamute has a thick, coarse guard coat, never long and soft. The undercoat is dense, from one to two inches in depth, oily and woolly. The coarse guard coat varies in length as does the undercoat. The coat is relatively short to medium along the sides of the body, with the length of the coat increasing around the shoulders and neck, down the back, over the rump, and in the breeching and plume. Malamutes usually have a shorter and less dense coat during the summer months. The Malamute is shown naturally. Trimming is not acceptable except to provide a clean cut appearance of feet.


The usual colors range from light gray through intermediate shadings to black, sable, and shadings of sable to red. Color combinations are acceptable in undercoats, points, and trimmings. The only solid color allowable is all white. White is always the predominant color on underbody, parts of legs, feet, and part of face markings. A white blaze on the forehead and/or collar or a spot on the nape is attractive and acceptable. The Malamute is mantled, and broken colors extending over the body or uneven splashing are undesirable.


The gait of the Malamute is steady, balanced, and powerful. He is agile for his size and build. When viewed from the side, the hindquarters exhibit strong rear drive that is transmitted through a well-muscled loin to the forequarters. The forequarters receive the drive from the rear with a smooth reaching stride. When viewed from the front or from the rear, the legs move true in line, not too close or too wide. At a fast trot, the feet will converge toward the centerline of the body. A stilted gait, or any gait that is not completely efficient and tireless, is to be penalized.


The Alaskan Malamute is an affectionate, friendly dog, not a “one man” dog. He is a loyal, devoted companion, playful in invitation, but generally impressive by his dignity after maturity.


IMPORTANT: In judging Malamutes, their function as a sledge dog for heavy freighting in the Arctic must be given consideration above all else. The degree to which a dog is penalized should depend upon the extent to which the dog deviates from the description of the ideal Malamute and the extent to which the particular fault would actually affect the working ability of the dog. The legs of the Malamute must indicate unusual strength and tremendous propelling power. Any indication of unsoundness in legs and feet, front or rear, standing or moving, is to be considered a serious fault. Faults under this provision would be splay-footedness, cowhocks, bad pasterns, straight shoulders, lack of angulation, stilted gait (or any gait that isn’t balanced, strong and steady), ranginess, shallowness, ponderousness, lightness of bone, and poor overall proportion. Disqualifications Blue Eyes

Judges education program of the AMCA, some highlights:

Introduction and Priorities:

Thank you for your interest in our breed. The Alaskan Malamute is a noble dog with a unique history. Malamutes served in the Byrd Expeditions and also in several expeditions after World War II. After surviving near extinction, the breed has come back to take its place on the trail, in the home, and in the show ring. The Malamute is a true working dog, and we would like you as judges to reward him for those attributes which make him a true sled dog. The following attributes are the priorities that the parent club would like addressed:

1. Soundness — A working dog must be sound. Soundness of feet and legs is our top priority. We want a dog which is clean coming and going and with good reach in the front and drive in the rear. Do not reward an unsound dog just because it is pretty. We do feel that the Malamute should be a beautiful dog. Records of the first white men who saw the dogs of the Malamuet tribe state that they marveled at the beauty of these dogs. However, soundness is always your top priority.

2. Coat — A sled dog cannot exist in a primitive environment without a proper coat. A harsh double coat is absolutely necessary. The length may vary somewhat. Do not reward a dog with a soft silky coat and no undercoat. Such a dog would find it difficult to survive in an Arctic climate.

3. Feet — Feet are extremely important in this breed. The Malamute foot should be fairly large and tight. There should be very little bend of pastern. A small dainty foot or one down at the pastern are not functional.

4. Temperament — The Alaskan Malamute is supposed to be a friendly, outgoing dog. He is not a one man dog. A Malamute should never growl at the judge. If the dog growls at your or his owner, excuse him from the ring. This is not the behavior that we want portrayed as proper Malamute temperament. Occasionally you may see two dogs who grumble at each other. This should be quickly controlled by the handler and not allowed to continue. The Alaskan Malamute should be an outgoing dog. A shy dog is not typical of this breed.

5. Condition — The Alaskan Malamute is a working sledge dog. He should be shown in top physical condition with no excess weight. You should not be able to grab handfuls of fat anywhere on the dog’s body. The dog is an athlete and should look and act like one. In the summertime you will see many dogs out of coat. This does not reflect poor condition.

Correct Examination Procedure

The Malamute is a fun loving dog and can be quite a clown, often at the expense of a human. Large dangling jewelry, hats and scarves could possibly become the objects of a game that you do not want to be a part of. After looking at the dog’s head, do your examination from the side. Feel the ears for thickness of leather, check shoulders and chest for depth and width. You will need to check the topline because sometimes the coat will be brushed up just before the croup and the appearance will be deceiving. The dog should be in top physical condition, and you should not feel any extra fat. It is not necessary to over examine the dog; most of what you need to see, you will see when he is moving. Do not bend down in front of or behind a Malamute. He could interpret it as an invitation to play, and you could find yourself on your back, which could be quite embarrassing. The Alaskan Malamute should stand for examination with confidence. He should not shy away from a judge. The breed can be quite vocal; the talking, however, should be limited to a low “woo woo”. A dog which shows any aggression should be excused from the ring. The Alaskan Malamute is best judged on a loose lead at a moderate speed. He should be under control at all times. The stride should be easy and tireless, but powerful. He is relatively light on his feet for such a large and powerful dog. If there is bait in the ring, please have it cleaned up prior to the Malamute judging. Food is the number one priority for the Alaskan Malamute, and he will do almost anything to get that piece of liver for himself and keep it away from all competitors. This attitude could easily cause chaos in your ring.

Important Points to Remember

An Alaskan Malamute

Must be sound of body and of temperament.

* Must have a double coat. The guard coat must be thick and coarse. The dog will have less coat in the summer.

* Must NEVER have a long, soft coat.

* Is a natural breed. Scissoring is acceptable ONLY on the feet.

* Is a large, not a giant breed.

* Must be able to exist in a primitive environment. This includes having a thick ear small for the size of the head.

* Must have a tight, deep snowshoe foot with well-cushioned pads.

* Should have a broad head with a bulky muzzle.

* Should be moderately angulated.

* Should have an alert, interested, and intelligent expression.

* Should have a well furred tail with the appearance of a waving plume.

* May be one of several different color combinations and markings. None is given preference over the others.

* Should have a dark eye.

* Should have a scissors bite.

* Should not move in a stilted gait or in any gait that is not completely efficient and tireless.

* Should not have broken colors extending over the body.

Survival characteristics should never be sacrificed in favor of cosmetic ones.